1. Qiguang He, Shengqiang Cai (2021), Soft pumps for soft robots, Science Robotics

  2. Chenghai Li, Zhijian Wang, Yang Wang, Qiguang He, Rong Long, Shengqiang Cai, Effects of network structures on the fracture of hydrogel, EML

  3. Wang, Zijun; Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhijian; He, Qiguang; Li, Chenghai; Cai, Shengqiang (2021), 3D Printing of Electrically Responsive PVC Gel Actuator, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

  4. Qiguang He, Zhijian Wang, Yang Wang, Zijun Wang, Chenghai Li, Raja Annapooranan, Jian Zeng, Renkun Chen and Shengqiang Cai (2021), Electrospun liquid crystal elastomer microfiber actuator, Science Robotics

  5. Raja Annapooranan, Shengqiang Cai, Actuation stress-induced rupture of a constrained LCE

  6. Kai Li, Changshen Du, Qiguang He, Shengqiang Cai, Thermally driven self-oscillation of an elastomer fiber with a hanging weight, EML.

  7. Zijun Wang, Anisotropic mechanical behaviors of 3D printed liquid crystal elastomer

  8. Raja Annapooranan, Yang Wang, Shengqiang Cai (2021), Highly durable and tough liquid crystal elastomers, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

  9. Chenghai Li, Mechanoluminecence

  10. Zhaoqiang, Fracking in a soft solid

  11. Dynamic wrinkling


  1. Pengrui Wang, David Berry, Zhaoqiang Song, Wisarut Kiratitanaporn, Jacob Schimelman, Amy Moran, Frank He, Brian Xi, Shengqiang Cai, Shaochen Chen(2020). 3D printing of a biocompatible double network elastomer with digital control of mechanical properties. Advanced Functional Materials.

  2. Zhaoqiang Song, Zhijian Wang, Shengqiang Cai, Mechanics of Vitrimer with Hybrid Networks. Mechanics of Materials.

  3. Yue Zheng, Shengqiang Cai (2020), Analytical solutions of cavitation instability in a compressible hyperelastic solid, International Journal of Non-linear Mechanics.

  4. Zhijian Wang, Shengqiang Cai (2020), Recent progress in dynamic covalent chemistries for liquid crystal elastomers, Journal of Materials Chemistry B (invited review).

  5. Zijun Wang, Zhijian Wang, Yue Zheng, Qiguang He, Yang Wang, Shengqiang Cai (2020), Three dimensional printing of functionally graded liquid crystal elastomer. Science Advances.

  6. He, Qiguang; Wang, Zhijian; Wang, Yang; Song, Zhaoqiang; Cai, Shengqiang, Recyclable and self-repairable fluid-driven liquid crystal elastomer actuator, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.

  7. Christopher W. Barney, Carey E. Dougan, Kelly R. McLeod, Amir Kazemi-Moridani, Yue Zheng, Ziyu Ye, Sacchita Tiwari, Ipek Sacligil, Robert A. Riggleman, Shengqiang Cai, Jae-Hwang Lee, Shelly R. Peyton, Gregory N. Tew, and Alfred J. Crosby, (2020) Cavitation in soft matter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  8. Kaijin Wu, Zhaoqiang Song, Shuaishuai Zhang, Yong Ni, Shengqiang Cai, Xinglong Gong, Linghui He, and Shu-Hong Yu (2020) Discontinuous fibrous Bouligand architecture enabling formidable fracture resistance with crack orientation insensitivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  9. Fernandes Minori, Adriane; He, Qiguang; Glick, Paul; Adibnazari, Iman; Stopol, Adrianna; Cai, Shengqiang; Tolley, Michael (2020),Reversible Actuation for Self-Folding Modular Machines using Liquid Crystal Elastomer, Smart Materials and Structures.

  10. Hongwei Zhou, Zhaoqiang Song, Shengqiang Cai, Toughening of Poly(lactide acid) with low crystallinity through biaxial post-stretching, Journal of Polymer Science.

  11. Xuming He, Yue Zheng, Qiguang He, Shengqiang Cai, Uniaxial Tension of a Nematic Elastomer with Inclined Mesogens, EML.

  12. Kai Li, Zengfu Chen, Zhijian Wang, Shengqiang Cai, Self-sustained eversion or inversion of a thermally responsive torus, Physical Review E.

  13. Yichen Zhai, Zhijian Wang, Kye-Si Kwon, Shengqiang Cai, Darren Lipomi, Tse Nga Ng (2020), Printing Multi-Material Organic Haptic Actuators, Advanced Materials.

  14. Sacchita Tiwari, Amir Kazemi-Moridani, Yue Zheng, Christopher W. Barney , Kelly R, McLeod, Carey E. Dougan, Alfred J. Crosby, Gregory N. Tew, Shelly R. Peyton, Shengqiang Cai, Jae-Hwang Lee, Seeded laser-induced cavitation for studying high-strain-rate irreversible deformation of soft materials, Soft Matter.

  15. Kai Li, Xiang Su, Shengqiang Cai, Self-sustained rolling of a thermally responsive rod on a hot surface, EML.

  16. Hui Li, Yue Zheng, Yulong Han, Shengqiang Cai, Ming Guo (2021), Nonlinear elasticity of biological basement membrane revealed by rapid inflation and deflation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  17. Zhaoqiang Song, Tong Shen, Franck Vernerey, Shengqiang Cai, Force-dependent bond dissociation explains the rate-dependent fracture of vitrimers. Soft Matter.

  18. Zhaoqiang Song, Shengqiang Cai, Cavitation dynamics in a vitrimer, Acta Mechanica Sinica

  19. Tong Shen, Zhaoqiang Song, Shengqiang Cai, Franck Vernerey (2021), Non-steady fracture of transient networks: the case of vitrimer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


  1. Wang, Z., He, Q., Wang, Y.& Cai, S. (2019). Programmable actuation of liquid crystal elastomer via “living” exchange reaction. Soft Matter.

  2. Wang,Y., Wang, Z., Su, Z. &Cai, S.(2019). Stretchable and Transparent Ionic Diode and Logic Gates. EML.

  3. Zhaoqiang Song, Yong Ni and Shengqiang Cai (2019). Fracture Modes and Hybrid Toughening Mechanisms in Oscillated/Twisted Plywood Structure. Acta Biomaterialia.

  4. Chihyung Ahn, Xudong Liang and Shengqiang Cai (2019).Bioinspired design of light-powered crawling, squeezing and jumping of an untethered soft robot. Advanced Materials Techologies.

  5. Xiongfei Lv, Liww Liu, Jinsong Leng, Yanju Liu, Shengqiang Cai (2019). Delayed electromechanical Instability of a Viscoelastic Dielectric Elastomer Balloon. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences.

  6. Jinrong Li, Yang Wang, Liwu Liu, Sheng Xu, Yanju Liu, Jinsong Leng, Shengqiang Cai (2019). A Biomimetic Soft Lens Controlled by Electrooculographic Signal, Advanced Functional Materials.

  7. Qiguang He, Zhijian Wang, Yang Wang, Adriane Minori, Michael T. Tolley, Shengqiang Cai (2019), Electrically controlled liquid crystal elastomer–based soft tubular actuator with multimodal actuation, Science Advances.

  8. Yue Zheng, Shengqiang Cai (2019), Determining prestrains in an elastomer through elliptical indentation. Journal of Applied Mechanics.

  9. Yue Zheng, Yang Lai, Yuhang Hu, Shengqiang Cai (2019), Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a confined elastic soft cylinder, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids .

  10. Jiliang Hu, Yiwei Li, Yukun Hao, Tianqi Zheng, German Alberto Parada, Huayin Wu, Shaoting Lin, Shida Wang, Xuanhe Zhao, Robert D. Goldman, Shengqiang Cai and Ming Guo (2019), High stretchability, strength, and toughness of living cells enabled by hyperelastic vimentin intermediate filaments, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  11. Christopher W. Barney, Yue Zheng, Shuai Wu, Shengqiang Cai and Alfred J. Crosby (2019), Residual Strain Effects in Needle-Induced Cavitation. Soft Matter.

  12. Qiguang He, Yue Zheng, Zhijian Wang, Xuming He, Shengqiang Cai (2019), Anomalous Inflation of a Nematic Balloon. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids .

  13. Jianyou Zhou, Shengqiang Cai, Liying Jiang (2019), Predicting the electrical breakdown strength of elastomers, EML

  14. Zijun Wang, Qiguang He, Shengqiang Cai, Artificial muscles for underwater soft robotic system, Book Chapter

  15. Zhaoqiang Song, Xiaodong Liang, Kai Li, Shengqiang Cai, Surface Mechanics of a Stretched Elastomer Layer Bonded on a Rigid Substrate, International Journal of Solids and Structures.

  16. Yang Wang, Zhijian Wang, Qiguang He, Prajval Iyer, Shengqiang Cai, Electrically controlled soft actuator with multiple and reprogrammable actuation modes, Advanced Intelligent Systems.


  1. Wang, Z., Li, K., He, Q., & Cai, S. (2018). A Light-Powered Ultralight Tensegrity Robot with High Deformability and Load Capacity. Advanced Materials, 1806849.

  2. M. Abi Ghanem, X. Liang, B. Lydon, L. Potocsnak, T. Wehr, M. Ghanem, S. Cai, and N. Boechler (2018). Wrinkles Riding Waves in Soft Layered Materials.Advanced Materials Interfaces, 1801609.

  3. Zheng, Y., Hu, Y., & Cai, S.(2019). Contact mechanics of a gel under constrained swelling Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 124, 427-445.

  4. Lin, Z., Hess, A., Yu, Z., Cai, S., & Gao, T. (2018). A fluid-structure interaction study of soft robotic swimmer using a fictitious domain/active-strain method.Journal of Computational Physics, 376, 1138-1155.

  5. Xu, S., Cai, S., & Liu, Z. (2018).Thermal Conductivity of Polyacrylamide Hydrogels at the Nanoscale.ACS applied materials & interfaces, 10(42), 36352-36360.

  6. Q. He, Z. Wang, Z. Song, S. Cai. (2018).Bioinspired Design of Vascular Artificial Muscle. Advanced Materials Technologies, 1800244.

  7. Ahn, C., Li, K., & Cai, S. (2018). Light or thermally-powered autonomous rolling of an elastomer rod.ACS applied materials & interfaces, 10(30), 25689-25696.

  8. Jiang, Y., Liang, X., Guo, M., Cao, Y., & Cai, S. (2018). Fracture Mechanics Modelling of Popping Event during Daughter Cell Separation. Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology, 1-7.

  9. Christianson, C., Goldberg, N. N., Deheyn, D. D., Cai, S., & Tolley, M. T. (2018). Translucent soft robots driven by frameless fluid electrode dielectric elastomer actuators. Science Robotics, 3(17), eaat1893.

  10. Su, A.W., Chen, Y., Dong, Y., Wailes, D.H., Wong, V.W., Chen, A.C., Cai, S., Bugbee, W.D. and Sah, R.L.. (2018).Biomechanics of osteochondral impact with cushioning and graft Insertion: Cartilage damage is correlated with delivered energy. Journal of biomechanics, 73, 127-136.

  11. Tian, H., Wang, Z., Chen, Y., Shao, J., Gao, T., & Cai, S. (2018). Polydopamine Coated Main-Chain Liquid Crystal Elastomer as Optically-Driven Artificial Muscle. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 10(9), 8307-8316.


  1. Li, K., Wu, W., Jiang, Z., & Cai, S. (2018) Voltage-induced wrinkling in a constrained annular dielectric elastomer film.Journal of Applied Mechanics, 85(1), 011007.

  2. Kang, J., Li, K., Tan, H., Wang, C., & Cai, S. (2017). Mechanics modelling of fern cavitation catapult.Journal of Applied Physics, 122(22), 225105.

  3. Kang, J., Wang, C., & Cai, S. (2017). Cavitation to Fracture Transition in a Soft Solid.Soft matter, 13(37), 6372-6376.

  4. Sun, B., Wang, Z., He, Q., Fan, W., & Cai, S. (2017). Porous double network gel with high toughness, high stretchability and superfast solvent-absorption.Soft matter, 13(38), 6852-6857.

  5. Minori, A., Jadhav, S., He, Q., Cai, S., & Tolley, M. T. (2017, September). Reversible actuation of origami inspired composites using liquid crystal elastomers. In ASME 2017 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (pp. V001T08A015-V001T08A015). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  6. Wang, Z., Tian, H., He, Q., & Cai, S. (2017). Reprogrammable, reprocessible and self-healable liquid crystal elastomer with exchangeable disulfide bonds.ACS applied materials & interfaces, 9(38), 33119-33128.

  7. Fan, W., Wang, Y., & Cai, S. (2017). Fatigue fracture of a highly stretchable acrylic elastomer.Polymer Testing, 61, 373-377.

  8. Liang, X., Zhang, Z., Sathisha, A., Cai, S., & Bandaru, P. R. (2018). Light induced reversible and irreversible mechanical responses in nanotube-polymer composites.Composites Part B: Engineering, 134, 39-45.

  9. Zheng, Y., Crosby, A. J., & Cai, S. (2017). Indentation of a stretched elastomer.Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 107 (2017) 145–159.

  10. Hess, A., Cai, S., & Gao, T. (2017). Stability of Couette flow past a gel film.Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, 7(5), 286-291.

  11. Wang, H., Wang, K., Fan, W., & Cai, S. (2017). Rupture of swollen styrene butadiene rubber.Polymer Testing, 61, 100-105.

  12. Su, A. W., Chen, Y., Wailes, D. H., Wong, V. W., Cai, S., Chen, A. C., ... & Sah, R. L. (2017). Impact Insertion of Osteochondral Grafts: Interference Fit and Central Graft Reduction Affect Biomechanics and Cartilage Damage.Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 36(1), 377-386.

  13. Christianson, C., Goldberg, N., Cai, S., & Tolley, M. T. (2017, April). Fluid electrodes for submersible robotics based on dielectric elastomer actuators. In Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2017 (Vol. 10163, p. 101631O). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

  14. Hu, J., Jafari, S., Han, Y., Grodzinsky, A. J., Cai, S., & Guo, M. (2017). Size and speed dependent mechanical behavior in living mammalian cytoplasm.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201702488.

  15. Liang, X., & Cai, S. (2017). New electromechanical instability modes in dielectric elastomer balloons.International Journal of Solids and Structures


  1. Wang, Z., Fan, W., He, Q., Wang, Y., Liang, X., & Cai, S. (2016). A simple and robust way towards reversible mechanochromism: Using liquid crystal elastomer as a mask.Extreme Mechanics Letters, 11, 42-48.

  2. Fan, W, Wang, Z., & Cai, S. (2016). Rupture of Polydomain and Monodomain Liquid Crystal Elastomer.International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 8(07), 1640001.

  3. Wingert, M. C., Jiang, Z., Chen, R., & Cai, S. (2017). Strong size-dependent stress relaxation in electrospun polymer nanofibers.Journal of Applied Physics, 121(1), 015103.

  4. He, Q., Wang, Z., Yan, Y., Zheng, J., & Cai, S. (2016). Polymer nanofiber reinforced double network gel composites: strong, tough and transparent.Extreme Mechanics Letters, 9, 165-170..

  5. Wingert, M. C., Kwon, S., Cai, S., & Chen, R. (2016). Fluid-like Surface Layer and Its Flow Characteristics in Glassy Nanotubes.Nano letters, 16(12), 7545-7550.

  6. Cui, S., Ahn, C., Wingert, M. C., Leung, D., Cai, S., & Chen, R. (2016). Bio-inspired effective and regenerable building cooling using tough hydrogels.Applied Energy, 168, 332-339.

  7. Liang, X., Tao, F., & Cai, S. (2016). Creasing of an everted elastomer tube.Soft Matter, 2016,12, 7726-7730


  1. Li, K., & Cai, S. (2015). Modeling of Light-Driven Bending Vibration of a Liquid Crystal Elastomer Beam. Journal of Applied Mechanics

  2. Ahn, C. H., Liang, X., & Cai, S. (2015). Inhomogeneous stretch induced patterning of molecular orientation in liquid crystal elastomers. Extreme Mechanics Letters

  3. Liang, X., Li, K., & Cai, S. (2015). Drying-Induced Deformation in Fiber-Embedded Gels to Mimic Plant Nastic Movements. International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 7(02), 1550016.

  4. Liang, X., & Cai, S. (2015). Shape Bifurcation of a Spherical Dielectric Elastomer Balloon Under the Actions of Internal Pressure and Electric Voltage. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 82(10), 101002.

  5. Wang, H., & Cai, S. (2015). Cavitation in a swollen elastomer constrained by a non-swellable shell. Journal of Applied Physics, 117(15), 154901.

  6. Wang, H., & Cai, S. (2015). Drying-induced cavitation in a constrained hydrogel. Soft matter, 11(6), 1058-1061.

  7. Cai, S. (2015, March). Bending a beam by a generalized ideal elastomeric gel. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences (Vol. 471, No. 2175, p. 20140919). The Royal Society.

  8. Liang, X., & Cai, S. (2015). Gravity induced crease-to-wrinkle transition in soft materials. Applied Physics Letters, 106(4), 041907.


  1. Li, K., Wu, P., & Cai, S. (2014). Chemomechanical oscillations in a responsive gel induced by an autocatalytic reaction. Journal of Applied Physics, 116(4), 043523.

  2. Li, K., & Cai, S. (2014). Wet adhesion between two soft layers. Soft matter, 10(41), 8202-8209.


  1. Lu, T., Cai, S., Wang, H., & Suo, Z. (2013). Computational model of deformable lenses actuated by dielectric elastomers. Journal of Applied Physics, 114(10), 104104.

  2. Weiss, F., Cai, S., Hu, Y., Kang, M. K., Huang, R., & Suo, Z. (2013). Creases and Wrinkles on the Surface of a Swollen Gel. Journal of Applied Physics, 114(7), 073507.

  3. Li, K., Ding, K., & Cai, S. (2013). Diffusion-induced wrinkling instability in a circular poroelastic plate. Applied Physics Letters, 102(24), 241908.

  4. Wang, H., Lei, M., & Cai, S. (2013). Viscoelastic deformation of a dielectric elastomer membrane subject to electromechanical loads. Journal of Applied Physics, 113(21), 213508.

  5. Zalachas, N., Cai, S., Suo, Z., & Lapusta, Y. (2013). Crease in a ring of a pH-sensitive hydrogel swelling under constraint. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 50(6), 920-927.

  6. Li, K., Ge, D., & Cai, S. (2012). Gravity-induced wrinkling of thin films on soft substrates. EPL (Europhysics Letters), 100(5), 54004.

Before 2013

  1. Zalachas, N., Cai, S., Suo, Z., & Lapusta, Y. (2012). Mechanical behavior of a pH‐sensitive hydrogel ring used in a micro‐optical device. PAMM, 12(1), 411-412.

  2. Lou, Y., Robisson, A., Cai, S., & Suo, Z. (2012). Swellable elastomers under constraint. Journal of Applied Physics, 112(3), 034906.

  3. Chen, D., Cai, S., Suo, Z., & Hayward, R. C. (2012). Surface energy as a barrier to creasing of elastomer films: An elastic analogy to classical nucleation. Physical review letters, 109(3), 038001.

  4. Wang, H., Cai, S., Carpi, F., & Suo, Z. (2012). Computational model of hydrostatically coupled dielectric elastomer actuators. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 79(3), 031008.

  5. Cai, S., & Suo, Z. (2012). Equations of state for ideal elastomeric gels. EPL (Europhysics Letters), 97(3), 34009.

  6. Foo, C. C., Cai, S., Koh, S. J. A., Bauer, S., & Suo, Z. (2012). Model of dissipative dielectric elastomers. Journal of Applied Physics, 111(3), 034102.

  7. Cai, S., Chen, D., Suo, Z., & Hayward, R. C. (2012). Creasing instability of elastomer films. Soft Matter, 8(5), 1301-1304.

  8. Cai, S., & Suo, Z. (2011). Mechanics and chemical thermodynamics of phase transition in temperature-sensitive hydrogels. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 59(11), 2259-2278.

  9. Jin, L., Cai, S., & Suo, Z. (2011). Creases in soft tissues generated by growth. EPL (Europhysics Letters), 95(6), 64002.

  10. Zhao, K., Pharr, M., Cai, S., Vlassak, J. J., & Suo, Z. (2011). Large Plastic Deformation in High‐Capacity Lithium‐Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 94(s1), s226-s235.

  11. Cai, S., Breid, D., Crosby, A. J., Suo, Z., & Hutchinson, J. W. (2011). Periodic patterns and energy states of buckled films on compliant substrates. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 59(5), 1094-1114.

  12. Zhu, J., Li, T., Cai, S., & Suo, Z. (2011). Snap-through expansion of a gas bubble in an elastomer. The Journal of Adhesion, 87(5), 466-481.

  13. Marcombe, R., Cai, S., Hong, W., Zhao, X., Lapusta, Y., & Suo, Z. (2010). A theory of constrained swelling of a pH-sensitive hydrogel. Soft Matter, 6(4), 784-793.

  14. Zhu, J., Cai, S., & Suo, Z. (2010). Resonant behavior of a membrane of a dielectric elastomer. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 47(24), 3254-3262.

  15. Yoon, J., Cai, S., Suo, Z., & Hayward, R. C. (2010). Poroelastic swelling kinetics of thin hydrogel layers: comparison of theory and experiment. Soft Matter, 6(23), 6004-6012.

  16. Zhu, J., Cai, S., & Suo, Z. (2010). Nonlinear oscillation of a dielectric elastomer balloon. Polymer International, 59(3), 378-383.

  17. Cai, S., Lou, Y., Ganguly, P., Robisson, A., & Suo, Z. (2010). Force generated by a swelling elastomer subject to constraint. Journal of Applied Physics, 107(10), 103535.

  18. Cai, S., Bertoldi, K., Wang, H., & Suo, Z. (2010). Osmotic collapse of a void in an elastomer: breathing, buckling and creasing. Soft Matter, 6(22), 5770-5777.

  19. Cai, S., Hu, Y., Zhao, X., & Suo, Z. (2010). Poroelasticity of a covalently crosslinked alginate hydrogel under compression. Journal of Applied Physics, 108(11), 113514.

  20. Cai, S., Li, Z., & Xia, Y. (2008). Evolution equations of deformation twins in metals—Evolution of deformation twins in pure titanium. Physica B: Condensed Matter, 403(10), 1660-1665.